Emulating Our Parent Star: Solar eruptions and their Geo-effectiveness

Dr. Shirsh Lata Soni worked in solar and space physics, APS University, MP, India. Here in this blog, she explains and light on the solar explosion and their geo-effectiveness.

She says:

We have been taught from childhood that the Sun is our parent star and it is a fireball with millions of Kelvin temperature. The Sun loses about 4 million tons of mass in the form of energy during nuclear fusion and about 1.5 million tons of mass each second, in the form of solar wind and other eruptions. However, the Sun has lost less than 0.1 percent of its mass since it was formed, 4.5 billion years ago.

The Sun emits energy in a huge range of electromagnetic waves: from X-rays (solar flares) to radio waves (solar radio bursts). Thus, it is difficult to study the energy emitted from the sun in any one fixed band. Most extensively explosive phenomena on Sun are known as Coronal Mass Ejection (CME). One of the most important reasons to study CMEs is that they are amongst the major drivers of what is known as space weather – a series of phenomena, disturbances, and technical failures that are caused by solar events Figure 1.


Figure 1. Examples of ways in which space weather can affect Earth and its infrastructure. Image courtesy: Space Weather Forecast Centre, Japan

CMEs are huge and spectacular clouds of magnetic field and plasma that regularly erupt from the Sun and propagate throughout the interplanetary medium. Forecasting CMEs and their impact on Earth, however, is not as straightforward as it may seem. Firstly, as each CME is characterised by its own latitudinal and longitudinal extent, it is important to determine whether a CME will impact Earth at all (which is known as the hit/miss problem). Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that appear to surround the occulting disk of the observing coronagraphs in skyplane projection are known as halo CMEs (Howard et al., 1982). Halo CMEs are fast and wide on the average and are associated with flares of greater X-ray importance because only energetic CMEs expand rapidly to appear above the occulting disk early in the event. Halos with their sources within ±45◦ of the central meridian are known as disk halos, while those with a central meridian distance (CMD) beyond ±45◦ but not beyond ±90◦ are known as limb halos, See Figure 2 and Figure 3.

Figure 2: These solar disks show the selected active region passes through the central meridian of the heliographic disk. In the first column we shown solar disk in 94 Å band and in the second column in the figure we choose the continuum image of the solar disk (a) Shows the first Active period with the three most active region AR 11875, AR 11877, and AR 11882 dated 23/10/2013, 24/10/2013, and 30/10/2013 respectively. (b) Shows the first Active period with the three most active region AR 11884, AR 11890 dated 02/11/2013, and 04/11/2013 respectively. (c) Shows the first Active period with three most active region AR 12192, AR 12201, and AR 12205 dated 23/10/2014, 04/11/2014, and 10/11/2014 respectively.
Figure 3: GOES X-ray plots in two wavelength bands (red) 1-8 A and (green) 0.5-4 A for duration 22-29 Oct 2013 (a), period 01-08 Nov 2013 (b), and third period 25Oct-08Nov 2014 (c). The circle indicates the X-class flares.

Disk halos are likely to arrive at Earth and cause geomagnetic storms, while limb halos only impact Earth with their flanks and hence are less geoeffective. Secondly, every CME has its own initial speed that will change by the time it reaches Earth because of interactions with the local solar wind speed (which is known as the arrival time problem). In the interplanetary medium, the CME went through acceleration and deceleration due to solar wind speed and finally come to speed nearly equal to speed of solar wind. But as we know that the speed of solar wind shows variation during the 11 year period of solar cycle. Finally, the direction of the magnetic fields within a CME plays an important role in driving space weather effects at Earth – the most geoeffective structures are those that are pointing southward of the ecliptic plane, because they interact the most with Earth’s intrinsic magnetic field, opening it to dangerous particles and radiation. This problem is known as the BZ problem (where Z indicates the north–south component).

The problems related to space weather forecasting of CMEs are not over yet! When CMEs are detected in situ, they are often accompanied by so-called interplanetary shocks ahead of them. The region of shocked and compressed solar wind that lies between a shock and an ICME ejecta (flux-rope or not) is known as the sheath region. Sheath regions can be powerful drivers of geomagnetic storms themselves, but they are (if possible) even more challenging to forecast than CMEs, especially because of their turbulent and variable nature.

A large part of my PhD studies has been centred on determining the features of early evolution of CMEs from its eruption site on solar atmosphere (active regions). Thesis includes comprehensive investigations of propagation characteristics of coronal mass ejections (CMEs)  in the solar corona and interplanetary medium along with explorations of solar source regions of CMEs and flares with their interplanetary consequences and geo effectiveness. For this purpose, I carried out an analysis of multiwavelength, multi-instrument, multi-point observations of solar activity as well as interplanetary observations with the help of data obtained from space and Earth-based instruments as well. It is clear that many questions are still open in CME research and forecasting, but I am positive that the next few years will be filled with exciting new discoveries (especially with the recently launched NASA’s Parker Solar Probe spacecraft and the future  ISRO’s Aditya L1 and ESA’s Solar Orbiter mission). Below you can find my doctoral dissertation and its included publications:

Find more about her work at:

https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/303830

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Shirsh-Soni

Dr. Shirsh Lata Soni

Dr. Shirsh Lata Soni, Research Scholar (Astronomy and Solar terrestrial Physics) SAS-10 CSSTEAP (UN Course / ISRO) A.P.S. University Rewa, MP, India 

Photometry: V603 AQL

Image:
Object: V603 AQL
DATE-OBS: 2021-05-14T19:45:38
EXPTIME(Seconds): B/2010V/R/I/g’2/r’2/i’2/z’2/Exbb
SUBFRMS: B/67V/R/I/g’2/r’2/i’2/z’2/Exbb
OBJCTRA: 18 48 54.64
OBJCTDEC:  +00 35 02.9
Catalogs/Filter Magnitude Results:
Astrometry Catalog: ATLAS: Y, UCAC4: N, GAIADR2/GAIAEDR3: N
Photometry Catalog: : UCAC4: N, APASS: N, ATLAS: Y
Johnson/Bessel: (B): +., (V): +11.927., (R): +., (I): +.
Sloan: g’2: +., r2: +., i’2: +., z’2: +.
Clear: CL: +.
Filters:
Sloan: u’2: N, g’2: N, r’2: N, i’2: N, z’2: N
Johnson/Bessel: U: N, B: N, V: Y, R: N, I: N
Clear/Other Filters: Clear: N, Ex-bb: N
Instruments:
Mount: SW EQ8-R
Switch: Pegasus UPB-2.0
Focuser: Sesto-Senso /FT
CCD: ATIK-383L+mono/Atik-EFW (9 positions)
TELESCOPE: C11, 1623.0mm
PRiSMv10, Tycho8.0, Astrometrica
http://www.alcor-system.com/new/index.htmlhttp://hyperion-astronomy.com/
https://www.tycho-tracker.com
http://www.astrometrica.at

Site:
ORIGIN: Cepheid Observatory, India, Vorion Scientific Observatory India
SITELAT: +24:55:00:00
SITELONG:+75:33:58:99
Observers:
K.V
Measures:
S.M, B.K, V.A.
Remark:
Sky Clear
End

Photometry: V1405 Cas/N Cas 2021

Image:
Object: V1405 Cas/N Cas 2021
DATE-OBS: 2021-05-11T23:03:50
EXPTIME(Seconds): B/50V/R/I/g’2/r’2/i’2/z’2/Exbb
SUBFRMS: B/5V/R/I/g’2/r’2/i’2/z’2/Exbb
OBJCTRA: 23 24 47.73
OBJCTDEC: +61 11 14.8
Catalogs/Filter Magnitude Results:
Astrometry Catalog: ATLAS: N, UCAC4: Y, GAIADR2/GAIAEDR3: Y
Photometry Catalog: : UCAC4: Y, APASS: N, ATLAS: N
Johnson/Bessel: (B): +., (V): +5.247., (R): +., (I): +.
Sloan: g’2: +., r2: +., i’2: +., z’2: +.
Clear: CL: +.
Filters:
Sloan: u’2: N, g’2: N, r’2: N, i’2: N, z’2: N
Johnson/Bessel: U: N, B: N, V: Y, R: N, I: N
Clear/Other Filters: Clear: N, Ex-bb: N
Instruments:
Mount: SW EQ8-R
Switch: Pegasus UPB-2.0
Focuser: Sesto-Senso /FT
CCD: ATIK-383L+mono/Atik-EFW (9 positions)
TELESCOPE: C11, 1623.0mm
PRiSMv10, Tycho8.0, Astrometrica
http://www.alcor-system.com/new/index.htmlhttp://hyperion-astronomy.com/
https://www.tycho-tracker.com
http://www.astrometrica.at

Site:
ORIGIN: Cepheid Observatory, India, Vorion Scientific Observatory India
SITELAT: +24:55:00:00
SITELONG:+75:33:58:99
Observers:
K.V
Measures:
S.M, B.K, V.A.
Remark:
Sky Clear
End

Comet: C/2020R4 ATLAS, Ion tail

Image:
Object: C/2020R4 ATLAS
DATE-OBS: 2021-05-04T16:04:18
EXPTIME(Seconds): B/V/R/I/g’2/r’2/i’2/z’2/900Exbb
SUBFRMS: B/V/R/I/g’2/r’2/i’2/z’2/60Exbb
OBJCTRA: 13 02 56.39
OBJCTDEC: +32 13 31.30
Catalogs/Filter Magnitude Results:
Astrometry Catalog: ATLAS: N, UCAC4: Y, GAIAEDR3: N
Photometry Catalog: : UCAC4: Y, APASS: N, ATLAS: N
Johnson/Bessel: (B): +., (V): +., (R): +., (I): +.
Sloan: g’2: +., r2: +., i’2: +., z’2: +.
Clear: CL: +14.10
Filters:
Sloan: u’2: N, g’2: N, r’2: N, i’2: N, z’2: N
Johnson/Bessel: U: N, B: N, V: N, R: N, I: N
Clear/Other Filters: Clear: N, Ex-bb: Y
Instruments:
Mount: SW EQ8-R
Switch: Pegasus UPB-2.0
Focuser: Sesto-Senso /FT
CCD: ATIK-383L+mono/Atik-EFW (9 positions)
TELESCOPE: C11, 1623.0mm
PRiSMv10, Tycho8.0, Astrometrica
http://www.alcor-system.com/new/index.html http://hyperion-astronomy.com/
https://www.tycho-tracker.com
http://www.astrometrica.at

Site:
ORIGIN: Cepheid Observatory, India
SITELAT: +24:55:00:00
SITELONG:+75:33:58:99
Observers:
K.V
Measures:
S.M, B.K, V.A.
Remark:
Sky Clear
End

Sloan g/r/i/z Photometry: ASASSN-21gq

Image:
Object: ASASSN-21gq
DATE-OBS: 2021-04-27T22:58:40.3008
EXPTIME(Seconds): *B/*V/*R/*I/240g’2/300r’2/240i’2/300z’2
SUBFRMS: *B/*V/*R/*I/4g’2/5r’2/4i’2/5z’2
OBJCTRA: 19 15 51.69
OBJCTDEC: -07 12 42.3
Instrument:
Astrometry Catalog: ATLAS: Y, UCAC4: N, GAIAEDR3: N
Photometry Catalog: : UCAC4: N, APASS: N, ATLAS: Y
Johnson/Bessel: (B): +*.*, (V): +*.*, (R): +*.*, (I): +*.*
Sloan: g’2: +14.105, r2: +13.409, i’2: +13.140, z’2: +12.935
CCD: ATIK-383L+
FILTERS:
Sloan: u’2: N,g’2: Y,r’2: Y,i’2: Y,z’2: Y
Johnson/Bessel: U: N,B: N,V: N,R: N,I: N,
TELESCOPE: C11, 1623.0mm
PRiSMv10, Tycho8.0
Site:
ORIGIN: Cepheid Observatory, India, Vorion Scientific, India
SITELAT: +24:55:00:00
SITELONG:+75:33:58:99
Observers:
K.V
Measures:
S.M, B.K, V.A.
Remark:
Sky Clear, Full Moon
End

Sloan z’2

How much far! How much close! a C11 SCT is?

We examined a random star field near to galactic band using Exoplanet Blue Blocking filter (The spectrum of the Astrodon ExoPlanet-BB filter is shown Below). It blocks UV and blue light.  It starts transmitting light near 500 nm, corresponding to the shape of the conventional V-band filter and continues to transmit light into the near-infrared.

The purpose of using this filter was to achieve the best possible focus at red end. The 40 sub frames of 120 seconds were taken using PRiSMv10. The image stacked and photometrically calibrated using star catalog ATLAS and Tycho8.0. We achieved the best possible average magnitudes at V band (conversion) to +21.50

Image:
Object: Random Star Field
DATE-OBS: 2021-04-18T21:28:25
EXPTIME(Seconds): *B/*V/*R/*I/*g’2/*r’2/*i’2/*z’2/4800ExBB
SUBFRMS: *B/*V/*R/*I/*g’2/*r’2/*i’2/*z’2/40ExBB
OBJCTRA: 18 19 30.15
OBJCTDEC: +09 28 07.1
Instrument:
Astrometry Catalog: ATLAS: Y, UCAC4: N, GAIAEDR3: N
Photometry Catalog: : UCAC4: N, APASS: N, ATLAS: Y
Johnson/Bessel: (B): *.*, (V): *.*, (R): *.*, (I): *.*
Sloan: g’2: *.*, r2: *.*, i’2: *.*, z’2: *.*
CCD: ATIK-383L+
FILTERS:
Sloan: u’2: N,g’2: N,r’2: N,i’2: N,z’2: N, ExBB: Y
Johnson/Bessel: U: N,B: N,V: N,R: N,I: N,
TELESCOPE: C11, 1623.0mm
PRiSMv10, Tycho8.0
Site:
ORIGIN: Cepheid Observatory, India, Vorion Scientific, India
SITELAT: +24:55:00:00
SITELONG:+75:33:58:99
Observers:
K.V
Measures:
S.M, B.K, V.A.
Remark:
Sky Clear, 
End

Random Star Field (Star Spikes are artifact only to make image interesting)
Original FITS
Astrodon Exoplanet BB Filter

Sloan g/r/i/z Photometry: ASASSN-21fr

Image:
Object: ASASSN-21fr
DATE-OBS: 2021-04-15T22:39:47.7936
EXPTIME(Seconds): *B/*V/*R/*I/900g’2/900r’2/1050i’2/1680z’2
SUBFRMS: *B/*V/*R/*I/15g’2/15r’2/14i’2/14z’2
OBJCTRA: 18 36 21.85
OBJCTDEC: 37 32 56.40
Instrument:
Astrometry Catalog: ATLAS: Y, UCAC4: Y, GAIAEDR3: N
Photometry Catalog: : UCAC4: N, APASS: N, ATLAS: Y
Johnson/Bessel: (B): +*.*, (V): +*.*, (R): +*.*, (I): +*.*
Sloan: g’2: +14.815, r2: +15.174, i’2: +15.423, z’2: +15.634
CCD: ATIK-383L+
FILTERS:
Sloan: u’2: N,g’2: Y,r’2: Y,i’2: Y,z’2: Y
Johnson/Bessel: U: N,B: N,V: N,R: N,I: N,
TELESCOPE: C11, 1623.0mm
PRiSMv10, Tycho8.0
Site:
ORIGIN: Cepheid Observatory, India, Vorion Scientific, India
SITELAT: +24:55:00:00
SITELONG:+75:33:58:99
Observers:
K.V
Measures:
S.M, B.K, V.A.
Remark:
Sky Clear, http://www.astronomy.ohio-state.edu/asassn/transients.html
End

Sloan g’2

V/R/I Photometry: ASASSN-21fh

Image:
Object: ASASSN-21fh
DATE-OBS: 2021-04-12T23:08:38
EXPTIME: 600.00 (seconds)
SUBFRMS: 20I/20R/15V
OBJCTRA: 17 09 08.11
OBJCTDEC: -37 30 40.9
Instrument:
Catalog: APASS
Bessell (B): +*.*, Bessell (V): +8.84*
Bessell (R): +8.03, Bessell (I): +7.09
CCD: ATIK-383L+
FILTERS: V/R/I
TELESCOPE: C11, 1623.0mm
PRiSMv10, Tycho
Site:
ORIGIN: Cepheid Observatory, India, Vorion Scientific, India
SITELAT: +24:55:00:00
SITELONG:+75:33:58:99
Observers:
V.K.Agnihotri, B. Kumar, S. Mahawar, K.Vora
Remark:
Sky Clear. https://www.aavso.org/aavso-alert-notice-740
End

Electronic Telegram No. 4955
Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams
Mailing address: Hoffman Lab 209; Harvard University;
20 Oxford St.; Cambridge, MA 02138; U.S.A.
e-mail: cbatiau at eps.harvard.edu (alternate cbat at iau.org)
URL http://www.cbat.eps.harvard.edu/index.html
Prepared using the Tamkin Foundation Computer Network

V1710 SCORPII = NOVA SCORPII 2021 = PNV J17091000-3730500
Paul Camilleri, Katherine, Northern Territory, Australia, reports his
discovery of an apparent nova (mag 9.5) on three 5-s exposures taken on Apr.
12.7625 UT with a Nikon D3200 digital SLR camera (+ 85-mm-f.l. f/2 lens),
noting the variable to have an orange color; the approximate position was
given as R.A. = 17h09m50s, -37d30’50” (equinox J2000.0). The variable was
given the provisional designation PNV J17091000-3730500 automatically when it
was posted to the Central Bureau’s TOCP webpage. R. Fidrich, Budapest,
Hungary, provides position end figures 08s.11, 40″.9 measured on a B-band CCD
image obtained on Apr. 12.814 with an iTelescope 0.50-m f/6.8 reflector
located at Siding Spring, NSW, Australia. F. Kugel, Banon, France, measured
position end figures 08s.32, 42″.6 from three stacked 30-s CCD images taken
with a 195-mm-f.l. f/2.8 lens on Apr. 13.12. A. Pearce, Nedlands, W.
Australia, provides position end figures 08s.10, 40″.9 from a CCD image
obtained remotely on Apr. 13.632 with a 0.43-m f/6.8 reflector located at
Siding Spring (reference stars from the Gaia DR2 catalogue).
Additional digital-image magnitudes (unfiltered unless noted otherwise)
that have been reported for PNV J17091000-3730500: Apr. 11.395 UT, [16.8
(All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae; communicated by P. Schmeer,
Saarbruecken-Bischmisheim, Germany); 11.682, [13.8 (R. McNaught,
Coonabarabran, NSW, Australia; 59-s exposure with Canon 6D camera +
135-mm-f.l. f/2.8 lens); 11.758, [12 (Camilleri); 11.794, [13.5 (McNaught);
12.168, g = 11.1 (ASAS-SN; independent discovery reported by Schmeer; position
end figures 08s.11, 40″.4); 12.408, g = 10.4 (ASAS-SN; Schmeer); 12.55, 9.5
(R. Kaufman, Bright, Vic., Australia; green channel approximating V band,
Canon 800D camera + 200-mm-f.l. lens; image posted via the following URL
https://tinyurl.com/4t5akzyy); 12.583, 9.6 (McNaught); 12.687, 9.5 (McNaught);
12.796, 9.4 (McNaught); 12.814, B = 10.64 (Fidrich; the variable was very red,
with B-V being at least +1.5); 12.955, R = 8.03 (V. Agnihotri, Kota,
Rajasthan, India; communicated via E. O. Waagen, AAVSO); 12.965, I = 7.09
(Agnihotri); 12.972, V = 8.84 (Agnihotri); 13.12, 8.9 (Kugel); 13.372, B =
9.71 (J. Backman, Lappeenranta, Finland; via Waagen); 13.422, B = 10.05 (J.-F.
Hambsch, Mol, Belgium; via Waagen); 13.423, I = 6.74 (Hambsch); 13.424, V =
8.69 (Hambsch); 13.632, V = 8.53 (Pearce); 13.633, B = 10.32 (Pearce); 13.634,
I = 6.58 (Pearce); 13.787, 8.5 (F. Romanov, Yuzhno-Morskoy, Nakhodka, Russia;
from five stacked 5-s exposures taken with a Canon EOS 60D camera +
135-mm-f.l. f/5.6 lens at ISO 6400 with a hazy sky; image posted at website
URL https://www.flickr.com/photos/filipp-romanov/51114244018).
Visual magnitude estimates for PNV J17091000-3730500: Apr. 13.068 UT,
8.8 (A. Amorim, Florianopolis, Brazil; via Waagen); 13.128, 8.9 (L. Araujo,
Pelotas, Brazil; via Waagen); 13.342, 8.7 (Amorim); 13.715, 8.8 (C. Wyatt,
Walcha, NSW, Australia; via Waagen); 13.732, 8.8 (Pearce).
Waagen also informs the Bureau that Joshi et al. have reported that their
spectroscopy obtained on Apr. 12.916 UT with the Mt. Abu PRL 1.2-m telescope
(range 440-900 nm, resolutions about 500 and 2000) show this to be an “Fe II”-
type of classical nova caught early in its outburst, with H-alpha, H-beta, Fe
II, and O I lines showing P-Cyg profiles on a red continuum (details are given
at website URL https://www.astronomerstelegram.org/?read=14544).
E. Kazarovets informs the Central Bureau that the permanent GCVS
designation V1710 Sco has been given to this nova.

NOTE: These ‘Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams’ are sometimes
superseded by text appearing later in the printed IAU Circulars.

                     (C) Copyright 2021 CBAT

2021 April 14 (CBET 4955) Daniel W. E. Green

PNV J17581670-2914490

Image:
Object: PNV J17581670-2914490
DATE-OBS: 2021-04-09T22:44:01.89
EXPTIME: 600.00 (seconds)
SUBFRMS: 20I/20R/20V
OBJCTRA: 17 58 16.70
OBJCTDEC: -29 14 49.00
Instrument:
Catalog: ATLAS
Bessell (B): +*.*, Bessell (V): +8.87*
Bessell (R): +7.92, Bessell (I): +7.07
CCD: ATIK-383L+
FILTERS: V/R/I
TELESCOPE: C11, 1623.0mm
PRiSMv10, Tycho
Site:
ORIGIN: Cepheid Observatory, India, Vorion Scientific, India
SITELAT: +24:55:00:00
SITELONG:+75:33:58:99
Observers:
V.K.Agnihotri, B. Kumar, S. Mahawar, K.Vora, K Arora
Remark:
Sky Clear.
End

VRI Image

Photometry: C/2021 R4 ATLAS

Image:
Object: C/2020 R4 ATLAS
DATE-OBS: 2021-04-02T22:59:39.4896
EXPTIME: 2040.00 (seconds)
SUBFRMS: 34
OBJCTRA: 19 42 07.77
OBJCTDEC: +00 00 51.90
Instrument:
Catalog: UCAC4
Bessell (B): +*.*, Bessell (V): +*.*
Bessell (R): +14.3, Bessell (I): +*.*
CCD: ATIK-383L+
FILTERS: R
TELESCOPE: C11, 1623.0mm
PRiSMv10, Tycho
Site:
ORIGIN: Cepheid Observatory, India, Vorion Scientific, India
SITELAT: +24:55:00:00
SITELONG:+75:33:58:99
Observers:
V.K.Agnihotri, B. Kumar, S. Mahawar, K.Vora
Remark:
Sky Clear.
End